How to Fix Your Game Crashing
This issue arose in my play through when I first acquired the Freestar Collective Ship (also known as the Star Eagle Ship. I was able to interact with the ladder, but as soon as I went one rung up my game would crash. I noticed some explosive barrels around the room the ladder was located.
The Possible Fix
If your ship is large enough, get as far away from the explosive barrels as possible. Shoot the explosives then proceed to try and climb the ladder.
Another possibility to fixing the issue is if there is an unlooted corpse at the bottom of the ladder. Fully loot the corpse and proceed to climb the ladder.
If none of aforementioned scenarios fix your issue: Charge up those boost packs and prepare to fly instead of climb. Hope this guide solves any issues of game crashes when climbing ladders.